Feeding the world
One question which has always been present in the debate over GM crops and foods, has been whether they could form an important way to address malnutrition, by increasing productivity, or will have the opposite effect through adverse effects and corporate control. GeneWatch believes that the current generation of GM crops and the context of corporate control make promises of 'feeding the world' unlikely. GeneWatch works to help allow developing countries and their citizens make genuine choices about whether or not and under what conditions they use GM crops.
A poverty trap?
One of the main concerns about the use of GM crops in developing countries is that farmers will be locked into a 'poverty trap', where they are forced to pay more for seed price hikes and expensive chemicals as herbicide-tolerant superweeds or resistant pests develop, or as new pests move in.
GM seeds are patented and saving these seeds is regarded as theft of intellectual property, making farmers increasingly dependent on the major multinational seed companies. Some companies also continue to conduct research into so-called Terminator technology, designed to stop seeds being fertile so they cannot be saved and replanted. There is currently an international moratorium on this technology due to concerns about its potential impacts on poorer farmers.
Broken promises and wasted money?
Complex traits in plants such as salt-tolerance and the ability to fix nitrogen were first promised thirty years ago in a US Office of Technology Assessment report published in 1981. However, the only GM traits that have been commercialised are herbicide tolerance and pest resistance. More complex traits are very difficult to achieve because they depend on the effects of multiple genes and the plants interactions with its environment.
GeneWatch has welcomed the news that DuPont and Syngenta have developed new drought-tolerant corn (maize) varieties using conventional breeding. However, Syngenta plans to market the new seeds only after it has genetically modified them to include resistance to its own-brand herbicide and to pests. This will allow it to patent the seeds and sell them at a premium with its herbicide, restricting access, increasing costs and introducing the environmental problems associated with these crops.
A USDA report has suggested that Monsanto's new GM drought-tolerant corn will perform no better than conventional varieties.
GM crops with enhanced levels of vitamins and minerals to tackle 'hidden hunger' have also yet to be commercialised and raise new safety and environmental issues. Many conventionally-bred varieties are already available.
Lobbying and commercial interests
In 2011, Monsanto announced that it plans a marketing push to try to increase sales of GM seeds in developing countries. Kenya's Daily Nation has reported on US lobbying to introduce GM crops in Kenya, based on a Wikileaks cable. Another Wikileaks cable highlighted the US Agriculture Department's interest in GM crops in Africa.The Gates Foundation is also promoting GM crops in Africa.
Undermining real solutions?
Most GM corn (maize) and soya is used as animal feed or subsidised by the US Government for use in industrial-scale biofuels. The increasing consumption of grain-fed meat and use of land and food crops for biofuels are both thought to be factors in driving global hunger.
There are many important things that need to be done to tackle hunger, such as improving food distribution and tackling food waste, which have nothing to do with GM crops. Better land, soil and water management - including agro-ecological methods to improve yields, sustainability and dietary diversity - must also play a role.
Some of these alternatives have been undermined by the restructuring of the research funding system that has taken place since the 1980s in order to deliver the promised benefits of GM crops. The history of public subsidy for GM crops research in Britain and Europe is documented in the GeneWatch Bioscience for Life? report.
GeneWatch UK submission to Royal Society's study on food-crop production
20th October 2009
Prospect: Revolution on Ice (December 2007)
- Press articles
- Triple Crisis: "Land grabs" and responsible agricultural investment in Africa (4th August 2014)
- Oryza: Indian Farmers Group Favours Move to Put GM Trials on Rice, Cotton On Hold (1st August 2014)
- Digital Journal: Brazilian farmers: biotech companies using deceptive advertising (1st August 2014)
- Nigeria: The Guardian: Civil Groups Caution African Countries Against Pro-GM Crops Campaigners (29th July 2014)
- Sahara Reporter: Genetically Modified Food Promoters Promote Poverty And Dependency In Africa (25th July 2014)
- TruthOut: Salvadoran Farmers Successfully Oppose the Use of Monsanto Seeds (8th July 2014)
- BBC: Food waste reduction could help feed world's starving (3rd July 2014)
- The Guardian: Corporate stranglehold of farmland a risk to world food security, study says (28th May 2014)
- RT: Russia postpones planting of GMOs by 3 years (22nd April 2014)
- The Guardian: India's rice warrior battles to build living seed bank as climate chaos looms (18th March 2014)
- The Guardian: How a false solution to climate change is damaging the natural world (14th March 2014)
- The Guardian: Food system that fails poor countries needs urgent reform, says UN expert (9th March 2014)
- This is Beijing: Political advisor calls for strict supervision of GM crops (6th March 2014)
- The Guardian: GM crops: European scientists descend on Africa to promote biotech (24th February 2014)
- Wall Street Journal: Argentina Stalls Monsanto Corn Project on Environmental Concerns - Update (11th February 2014)
- Daily Mail: Farm-ageddon: No birds. No bees. Our countryside laid waste. And billions of animals that never see a blade of grass - book warns of terrifying threat from today's mega-farms (25th January 2014)
- BBC: Genetically modified rice testing divides opinion in Ghana (25th January 2014)
- Natural Society: China Blames Smuggled U.S. GMO Corn for Crop Failure (18th January 2014)
- English People's Daily: GM rice strains to expire before planting, officials say (16th January 2014)
The Telegraph: Rice and maize improved - without using GM (10th January 2014)
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Drought tolerant maize varieties ready (4th January 2014)
Reports ten new varieties of non-GM (conventionally bred) drought-tolerant maize developed by East African agricultural scientists.
- Off the Grid News: Farmers Abandoning GMO Seeds And The Reason Will Surprise You (4th January 2014)
- The Independent (Uganda): The Monsanto Menace (2nd January 2014)
- ECNS (China): Celebrity feud ramps up GM food debate (26th December 2013)
- Caixin Online: Monsanto's Cautious China Strategy (24th December 2013)
- The Economist: China's Fierce Public Debate Over GM Food Exposes Concerns About America (13th December 2013)
- The Nation: The global agri-feudals (13th November 2013)
- EIN: Monsanto's Massive Push Into Africa (30th October 2013)
- New York Times: Analysis: Lack of Crop Rotation Slowly Turns Argentine Pampas Into 'Sand' (23rd October 2013)
- Huffington Post Blog: My 5 Minutes at the World Food Prize Honoring a Monsanto Exec - What I Wish I'd Said (23rd October 2013)
- Huffington Post: Changing Course to Feed the World in 2050 (3rd October 2013)
- SciDev.net: Traditional innovation in farming is under threat (2nd October 2013)
- Common Ground: Biotech plays the world hunger card to promote GMOs (October 2013)
- New York Times: A Disease Cuts Corn Yields (30th September 2013)
- Wall Street Journal: 'GM Crops Won't Solve India’s Food Crisis' (22nd September 2013)
- The Guardian: Up to two-fifths of fruit and veg crop is wasted because it is 'ugly', report finds (19th September 2013)
- Pambazuka News: Africa: Obama, Bio-Technology and the Illusion of Africa's Food Security (18th September 2013)
- SciDev.net: Farming and knowledge monocultures are misconceived (3rd September 2013)
- MoneyLife: GM crops-Part3: The economics of genetically modified food (13th September 2013)
- MoneyLife: GM crops-Part2: The myth about food security (12th September 2013)
- MoneyLife: GM crops-Part 1: The truth about genetically modified foods (11th September 2013)
- FoodNavigator: 'Fear of the unknown' prevents African adoption of GM crops, says African ag group (10th September 2013)
- SPYGhana: Biosafety Law Will Threaten Food Safety In Ghana (September 2013)
- Reuters: The endless debate over genetic engineering (9th September 2013)
- The Hindu: Keep the pause button on GM pressed (7th September 2013)
- Wall Street Journal: It's China vs. China in Genetically Modified Food Fight (3rd September 2013)
- Guardian Environmental Network: Brazil faces drop in crops (3rd September 2013)
- Business Day: Most of Africa 'not positive' about growing genetically modified crops (12th August 2013)
- Wall Street Journal: Asia's Rice Glut Expected to Worsen (30th July 2013)
- The Guardian: GM crops: campaigners in Ghana accuse US of pushing modified food (24th July 2013)
- Modern Ghana: The 6th Africa Agricultural Week Is Not About Science (20th July 2013)
- Standard (Kenya): Maize stalk borer evolves resistance to GM crops (15th July 2013)
- Women of China: Genetic Modification Crops Remain Problematic for Asian Countries (14th July 2013)
- Independent European Daily Express: Battle Over Seeds Heats Up in Argentina (11th July 2013)
- Manitoba Co-operator: One tool for a complex problem (10th July 2013)
- AllAfrica: Africa: Countering Africa's Green Revolution (8th July 2013)
- The Guardian: Why all the fuss about GM food? Other innovations are available (28th June 2013)
- The Tablet: Our blind dependence on GM crops could increase hunger (28th June 2013)
- Food Processing: Do GM crops equal better yields? UC researchers say no (27th June 2013)
- Daily Trust: Nigeria: Make Haste Slowly On GM Foods (26th June 2013)
- China Digital Times: Soybean Imports Revive Fears About GM Food (24th June 2013)
- New York Times: The True Deservers of a Food Prize (25th June 2013)
- AlterNet: Research Shows that Monsanto's Big Claims for GMO Food Are Probably Wrong (25th June 2013)
- The Guardian: GM crops won't help African farmers (24th June 2013)
- The Guardian: GM crops: the genetic colonialists (24th June 2013)
- Channel 4 Fact Check: Has the environment minister struck gold on GM? (20th June 2013)
- The Telegraph: The inconvenient truth about GM (17th May 2013)
- Daily Mail: The 'superwheat' that boosts crops by 30%: Creation of new grain hailed as biggest advance in farming in a generation (12th May 2013)
- Business Mirror: Farmer-scientist group seeks ban on GM crops (3rd April 2013)
- AllAfrica: Uganda: We Do Not Need GMOs - Ugandan Farmers (1st April 2013)
- Farming UK: Feed is contributing to climate change, says crop expert (18th March 2013)
- International Affairs Review: Disentangling U.S. Agriculture and Food Aid: The Failure of Myopic Policy Thinking (18th March 2013)
- AgProfessional: GMO controversy delays approvals in China (11th March 2013)
- FT: India's wheat shortage, sorry, surplus (7th March 2013)
- The Hindu: GM crops will sow food insecurity (19th February 2013)
The Guardian: India's rice revolution (16th February 2013)
Reports on "super yields" of rice and other crops in India using a method of growing crops called System of Rice (or root) Intensification (SRI).
- Dawn.com: World's richest men aid 'Green Revolution' center (14th February 2013)
Farmers Guardian: African farmers can rise to food security challenge (8th February 2013)
UK scientists join GM industry body the Agricultural Biotechnology Council (ABC) to lobby for GM crops in Africa.
- Farmers Weekly: US farmers may stop planting GMs after poor global yields (6th February 2013)
- The Guardian: To stop hunger, it's not enough to change policy; we must challenge power (24th January 2013)
- BBC: Half of all food 'thrown away' claims report (10th January 2013)
- Alaska Dispatch: Genetically modified food: GMO backlash in Latin America (2nd January 2013)
- The Hindu: Biodiversity congress seeks ban on field trials of GM crops (2nd January 2013)
- DNA: Who will pay for failed GM crops? (23rd December 2012)
- Weekly Times (Australia): SA won't 'jeopardise' state with GM crops (18th December 2012)
- The Guardian: More UK aid channelled via investment funds in tax haven of Mauritius (11th December 2012)
- FirstPost.India: Are genetically modified crops finally on their way out of India? (3rd December 2012)
- Independent Science News: How Millions of Farmers are Advancing Agriculture For Themselves (3rd December 2012)
- BizCommunity: African Union requested to ban GM crops in Africa (29th November 2012)
- Kenya Broadcasting Corporation: Importation of all GMO foods banned (21st November 2012)
- The Peruvian Times: Ten Year Ban on Genetically Modified Seeds and Foods Takes Force Thursday (17th November 2012)
Tehelka: Field trials on trial (10th November 2012)
Reports that tough times lie ahead for the GM industry in India with farmers protesting crop trials and an official committee suggesting a 10-year moratorium.
- The Hindu: GM crops should go back to the lab (7th November 2012)
- New Internationalist: Is there a place for GM crops in a sustainable future? (November 2012)
Deccan Herald: Panel for 10-yr halt on GM crop trials (18th October 2012)
In India, a Supreme Court appointed technical expert committee (TEC) on genetically modified (GM) crops has recommended a 10-year moratorium on field trials of GM crops and advocated setting up a powerful regulatory system besides conducting studies on long-term impacts of GM crops on food and environment.
- Farming Online: Finnish research shows halving food losses could feed extra 1bn (12th October 2012)
The Guardian: Why our food is making us fat (11th June 2012)
Reports the link between US corn (maize) farming, the production of high fructose corn syrup, and obesity. Most US maize is now genetically-modified.
- New York Times: As Grain Piles Up, India's Poor Still Go Hungry (7th June 2012)
- Daily News Tanzania: MONSANTO AND SYNGENTA: FUNDING AGRA FOR AFRICA? (3rd June 2012)
- The Hindu: The politics of food for the hungry (30th May 2012)
- Huffington Post: The New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition: Nothing New About Ignoring Africa's Farmers (23rd May 2012)
- Khaleej Times: Bill Gates defends focus on high-tech agriculture (25th January 2012)
- The Hindu: Unconstitutional, unethical, unscientific (28th December 2011)
- Daily Mail: Super weeds 'run rampant in fields near GM crops', scientists warn (21st October 2011)
- Forbes India Magazine: Bt Brinjal and India's Wake-up Call (20th October 2011)
- The Guardian: GM crops promote superweeds, food insecurity and pesticides, say NGOs (19th October 2011)
Financial Times: US ethanol refiners use more corn than farmers (12 July 2011)
US ethanol refiners are consuming more domestic corn than livestock and poultry farmers for the first time, underscoring how a US government-supported biofuels industry has contributed to surging grain demand.
The New Age Online: GM project faces ruin (28th June 2011)
Reports serious problems with a programme to grow GM crops in South Africa.
- Financial Times: Crop science: Global food debate presents opportunity to reap a profit (27th June 2011)
- Food Manufacture: Sir David King 'unethical' and badly informed on GM, says expert (24th June 2011)
The Guardian: Global food crisis: the speculators playing with our daily bread (2nd June 2011)
Dan Basse, president of AgResource (Chicago) states that the promise that biotech seeds would deliver big increases in yields has turned out to be illusory. He also fears that "superweeds are coming on so fast with GM that US farmers are going to have to go back to more traditional cultivation methods [as opposed to the practice with GM seeds of not tilling the soil and simply spraying to control pests] - but they don't have the capacity to do that."
- The Guardian: Eco-farming could double output of poor countries, says UN (8th March 2011)
- Freeport News (Bahamas): 'Event Horizon:' Global debate on Genetically Modified (GM) footstock - 2011 update
- External links
- Durham University: A new approach to governing GM crops? (June 2014)
- Agrarian Justice: The New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition: A Coup for Corpate Capital (27th May 2014)
- AS-PTA: Update from the GM Free Brazil campaign (31st October 2013)
- The Grocer: UK food security under the spotlight in MPs' inquiry (29th October 2013)
- African Centre for Biosafety: Monsanto's failed SA GM Maize pushed into rest of Africa (24th October 2013)
- African Centre for Biosafety: Africa bullied to grow defective Bt maize: the failure of Monsanto's MON810 maize in South Africa (23rd October 2013)
- ActionAid: Rising to the Challenge: Changing Course to Feed the World in 2050 (3rd October 2013)
- MASIPAG: GM Corn Farmers Lose Lands, Increase Debts Says New Research (20th September 2013)
- UNCTAD: Take ‘mosaic’ approach to agriculture, boost support for small farmers, UNCTAD Report urges (18th September 2013)
- SpinWatch: Biotech ambassadors in Africa (6th August 2013)
- Heinemann et al. (2013) Sustainability and innovation in staple crop production in the US Midwest
- YouTube: Colin Tudge on GM Crops (4th February 2013)
- War on Want: DFID and agribusiness in Africa: a toxic mix (6th December 2012)
- LEAF Initiative (India): A citizen's initiative on issues related to Livelihood, Environment, Agriculture and Food
- African Centre for Biosafety: African Civil Society calls on the African Union to ban genetically modified crops (25th November 2012)
- Agricultural Policy Analysis Centre: Feeding the world's hungry and growing population (21st November 2012)
- Friends of the Earth International: A Wolf in Sheep's Clothing? An analysis of the 'sustainable intensification' of agriculture (October 2012)
- Naydanya International: The GM Emperor has no clothes (29 September 2011)
- Press Releases
- GeneWatch PR: GeneWatch UK welcomes move to maintain moratorium on Terminator technology 27th March 2006
- GeneWatch PR: GeneWatch UK calls for Syngenta, the new world leader in GM crops, to abandon Terminator and Traitor Technology 11th October 2000
- GeneWatch PR: New GM foods offer no consumer benefits 13th April 2000
- GeneWatch Reports